Received: 18th July 2023; Revised: 30th November 2023, 01st December 2023; Accepted: 03rd December 2023


  • Archielyn A. Semanero PhD, LPT, Sta. Maria West District, Schools Division of Bulacan, Bulacan, Philippines
  • Maria Arlene M. Berania MPMG, DDM, College of Arts and Sciences, Universidad de Manila, Manila City, Philippines
  • Ricardo C. Reyes III PhD, LPT, DDM, College of Education, Universidad de Manila, Manila City, Philippines


School-Based Management, Developing Schools, Compliance Framework, Implementation


This study is qualitative research that employs a descriptive design. It aimed to determine the challenges encountered by the Level 1 (Developing) schools in the District Schools, Division of Bulacan, Philippines, in the implementation of School-Based Management (SBM) as a basis for the proposal of a Compliance Framework. This study describes the compliance level of participant schools in SBM implementation and how they addressed the challenges encountered that led to the development of a Compliance Framework. The researchers gathered data from the SBM validation results of each school and survey interviews with the school heads and SBM coordinators. Results showed that the actual performance of the schools studied was significantly below the required criteria for achieving an advanced level of School-Based Management and that there is a need for improvement in these schools' application of all the SBM principles. Results also revealed that participant schools encountered several challenges in the implementation of school-based management. It was recommended that schools undertake comprehensive training on the administration of the School-Based Management system. The adoption of the proposed Compliance Framework developed in this study is highly recommended to intensify SBM implementation in schools, which can contribute to improving their overall level and general status.


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How to Cite

A. Semanero, A., Arlene M. Berania, M., & C. Reyes III, R. (2024). CHALLENGES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT OF DEVELOPING SCHOOLS: BASIS FOR A COMPLIANCE FRAMEWORK: Received: 18th July 2023; Revised: 30th November 2023, 01st December 2023; Accepted: 03rd December 2023. Docens Series in Education, 6, 58–71. Retrieved from